Genetically modified food - foods. Genetically modified food is food which has been produced using organisms that have been engineered genetically. GM food c ..

Genetically modified food

Genetically modified food

Genetically modified food is food which has been produced using organisms that have been engineered genetically. GM food contains GM organisms. Common examples include maize, soybean, cotton and rapeseed. The first genetically modified food animal approved for sale is salmon.

Commercial sale of genetically modified food began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its delayed ripening tomato. Genetically modified foods include: soybean, corn, canola, rice, and cotton seed oil. The features of available and future crops include resistance to herbicides, insects, viruses, fungi, production of extra nutrients, faster growth, or some other beneficial purpose. GM livestock have also been experimentally developed.

Research is being done on bacteria which would speed up making cheese. Genetically modified yeast could be used to make beer that has fewer calories.


1. Regulation

The approaches taken by governments to assess and manage the development and release of genetically modified organisms GMOs vary from country to country. Some of the most marked differences are between the USA and Europe.

The US regulatory policy is the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. The policy has three main principles:

  • GM products are on similar enough to existing products that existing laws are sufficient to review the products.
  • Only regulation grounded in verifiable scientific risks will be tolerated, and.
  • UK policy will focus on the product of genetic modification GM techniques, not the process itself.

European Union have the strictest GMO rules in the world. All GMOs, and irradiated food, are considered "new food" and subject to extensive, case-by-case, science based food evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The criteria for authorization has four broad categories: "safety," "freedom of choice," "labelling," and "traceability".

However many scientists think current studies are not good enough to be sure that genetically modified food is safe.


1.1. Regulation Labelling

One of the key issues is whether GM products should be labelled. A study into voluntary labelling in South Africa found that 31% of products labelled as GMO-free had a GM content above 1.0%.

In Canada and the US labelling of GM food is voluntary. In Europe all food including processed food or cattle feed which contains greater than 0.9% of approved GMOs must be labelled.

Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Australia require labelling so people can choose between foods that have genetically modified, ordinary or organic origins.


2. Examples

Most vegetable oil used in the US is produced from GM crops. Vegetable oil is sold directly to consumers as cooking oil, margarine, and shortening, and is used in prepared foods.

As for soybeans, about 95% of the US crop is GM, and about 85% of the worlds soybean crop is processed into soybean meal and vegetable oil. The bulk of the soybean crop is grown for oil production, with the high-protein defatted and "toasted" soy meal used as for farm animal food and dog food. 98% of the US soybean crop is used for feeding farm animals. A smaller percentage of soybeans are used directly for human food.

Potato blight

Researchers have made genetically modified potatoes which are resistant to potato blight. That disease caused the Irish potato famine in the 1840s. EU approval is needed before commercial growing of this GM crop can take place.

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Outline the ethical implications of consuming transgenic food products.

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Listening Exercise.

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Importing food.

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What Is Genetic Modification? Live Science.

A high powered group of scientists have said genetically modified foods are safe to eat, in a new report. GMO Food Testing Techniques rapidmicrobiology. Genetically Modified food. Genetically Modified GM food is not grown commercially in the UK. You can import varieties of the following GM food. Labelling of genetically modified foods Business and economy. In the field of biotechnology, GMO stands for genetically modified organism, while in the food industry, the term refers exclusively to food that has. Genetically modified crops. What are GM Foods? GM refers to any living thing thats had its DNA altered using genetic engineering. This could be a plant, animal including humans or.

Genetically modified food.

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GMOs political and ethical

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10 things you may not know about GMO Food Unfolded.

All the latest news about Genetically modified crops from the BBC. Kirsty Wark gathers those involved in to the GM crop debate in Britain in 1999. Kirsty Wark. Genetically modified food and feed: the Senedd Wales. Genetically modified crops are already entering the food supply in the UK. But uncertainties remain 07 Apr 1998. News. Genetic modification of foods:section 3 food prosecutions SOFHT. The genetic modification of crops is a hugely debated topic – Serena Qiao explores why GM crops deserve and need a second chance in the. BRIEFING NOTES ON THE GENETIC MODIFICATION OF PLANTS. However, all GM foods go through a strict regulation process before being approved for consumption. The European Food Safety Authority. Genetic modification and food IFST. Genetically modified GM or transgenic crops are produced using plant biotechnology to select desirable characteristics in plants and.

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